In Yugoslavia, what began as a noble idea ended in war, destruction and poverty.
As the remnant of the old Yugoslavia legislates itself into extinction, Tim Judah traces the story of a troubled country.
In the 1950s socialist self-management was introduced, which reduced the state management of enterprises.
Managers of socially owned companies were supervised by worker councils, which were made up of all employees, with one vote each.
This image is a map derived from a United Nations map.
Unless stated otherwise, UN maps are to be considered in the public domain. Some UN maps have special copyrights, as indicated on the map itself.
The company carried out large construction projects in Libya, Kuwait, Zambia and Guinea, and by the late 1960s, the company was competing in European markets in West Germany, Czechoslovakia, and the German Democratic Republic.
The departure of Yugoslavs seeking work began in the 1950s, when individuals began slipping across the border illegally.
In the mid-1960s, Yugoslavia lifted emigration restrictions and the number of emigrants, including educated and highly skilled individuals increased rapidly, especially to West Germany.
The land was partially nationalised and redistributed, and partially collectivised.
Farmer households could own up to 10 hectares of land per person and the excess farmland was owned by co-ops, agricultural companies or local communities.These were organised into enterprises, also known as labour organisations, which in turn associated into composite organisations of associated labour, which could be large companies or even whole industry branches in a certain area.