The independence leaders, both Hindus like Nehru and Mohandas Gandhi, and Muslims like Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan, who later became Pakistan's first prime minister, worked together with the British to make the transition from British India into independent India and Pakistan a reality.
When the British finally left India in 1947, two independent states, India and Pakistan, were formed.
India and Pakistan have fought three wars over the years and have been involved in many other confrontations, particularly over the disputed Kashmir region that lies between the two countries and is today the scene of a protracted, three-way conflict among the Indians, Pakistanis, and Kashmiris, who are seeking independence from both India and Pakistan.
After the death of Jinnah, Pakistan was ruled by a series of army chiefs under what were called martial law regimes.There are much smaller Hindu, Christian and Zoroastrian minority communities.Pakistan is not a secular state; the state religion is Islam, and religion enters many aspects of Pakistani political and social life.Each of these regions has its own language and ethnic groups. 1700), including prehistoric remains at Mohenjo-Daro, near the modern Pakistani city of Larkana, and at Harappa, near the city of Lahore.
The capital of Pakistan is the modern city of Islamabad, although its cultural and economic centers continue to be Lahore and Karachi. The Indus valley civilization has remained an interest for archaeologists because of the society's high level of sophistication and stability over several centuries.Because Jinnah feared political, social, and cultural subordination to the Hindu majority, he started a movement to establish a separate state based on Islam for the Indian Muslims.